## Lap 10: Generating & Testing Hypotheses

## It's Not Just for Science...

## Promoting Curiosity

If we want our students to feel comfortable generating hypotheses and testing them, then we need to promote an environment of curiosity and inquiry. We want them to ask questions and wonder about the world.

Wonder Wall: have students post sticky notes with questions that inspire them. Once a week, have them pick one to rewrite into an open-ended investigation question (yes this can be done in secondary;)

Question Map: Give the kids a concept and have them generate a question map around that concept. This will help act as a launching board during research units or inquiry lessons.

Question Stems:

I think if I change__________then___________will happen. I think this because______.

If I __________how will it affect_________?

What would happen if_____________?

**Ideas...**Wonder Wall: have students post sticky notes with questions that inspire them. Once a week, have them pick one to rewrite into an open-ended investigation question (yes this can be done in secondary;)

Question Map: Give the kids a concept and have them generate a question map around that concept. This will help act as a launching board during research units or inquiry lessons.

Question Stems:

I think if I change__________then___________will happen. I think this because______.

If I __________how will it affect_________?

What would happen if_____________?

## 6 Methods for Generating and Testing Hypotheses

One of our number one goals as teachers is to mold our students into problem-solvers, thinkers, and innovators. One of the most effective ways to do this is to provide our students with opportunities to generate and test hypotheses. We get stuck in thinking this process can only happen in a science class, but that is not the case. Always remember that with any of the methods below for generating and testing hypothesis you MUST have your kids explain the thought process to you and to their peers to glean the full effect. Explore the ways below to see how you can bring this highly effective method into your lesson design across the curriculum.

## Investigate

1. The student or the teacher puts forth an event, problem or question.

2. They research or find the knowns and unknowns about the event, problem, or question.

3. They put forth a hypothetical scenario (Marzano, 2005).

4. They try to find evidence that would refute or support their scenario or that of another student.

2. They research or find the knowns and unknowns about the event, problem, or question.

3. They put forth a hypothetical scenario (Marzano, 2005).

4. They try to find evidence that would refute or support their scenario or that of another student.

**History Example:**Why was the Berlin wall built? How would the face of Europe be changed if the Berlin wall had never been erected? Hypothesize the outcome and support your prediction with evidence.## Problem Solving

1. The student or teacher identifies the goal or problem.

2. The student looks for barriers to solving the problem.

3. The student brainstorms solutions.

4. The student tries it out.

5. Goes back to the brainstorming stage if it isn't effective and tries again.

2. The student looks for barriers to solving the problem.

3. The student brainstorms solutions.

4. The student tries it out.

5. Goes back to the brainstorming stage if it isn't effective and tries again.

**Math Example:**Create a boat out of the materials on your table that can hold 20 pennies without sinking. Be sure to use your scale for weighing your vessel and the ruler to help calculate surface area of your vessel. Hint: the ratio of these might be related to the success of your mission!## Decision Making

1. The student or teacher identifies the decision needing to be made.

2. The student identifies the alternatives being considered.

3. The student comes up with criteria that they will use to make their decision.

4. The student ranks those criteria in terms of importance.

5. The student assigns a rating to each of the alternatives being considered in terms of each criteria.

6. The student calculates the totals to help guide their decision.

2. The student identifies the alternatives being considered.

3. The student comes up with criteria that they will use to make their decision.

4. The student ranks those criteria in terms of importance.

5. The student assigns a rating to each of the alternatives being considered in terms of each criteria.

6. The student calculates the totals to help guide their decision.

**Science Example:**Hypothesize what type of energy would be the best alternative to coal? Use a decision matrix to assist in your decision.## Experimental Inquiry

1. The student observes an event.

2. The student "applies specific theories or rules to explain what (they) have observed" (Marzano, 2001)

3. The student generates a hypothesis about their observation.

4. The student tests their hypothesis.

5. The student explains the results.

6. The student performs further experimentation if necessary.

2. The student "applies specific theories or rules to explain what (they) have observed" (Marzano, 2001)

3. The student generates a hypothesis about their observation.

4. The student tests their hypothesis.

5. The student explains the results.

6. The student performs further experimentation if necessary.

**ELA Example:**How does incorporating specific literary devices affect the reader? Design a method for testing your hypothesis with a piece of literature of your choice. Perform the test, and explain the results in writing.## System Analysis: Relating the parts to the whole

1. The student explains the system, its parts and their functions.

2. The student explains how each part of the system is related to each other.

3. The student predicts how a change in one of the parts would affect the whole.

2. The student explains how each part of the system is related to each other.

3. The student predicts how a change in one of the parts would affect the whole.

**ELA Example:**How would the story of Romeo and Juliet change if Romeo had been a Capulet? Rewrite the story.**Science Example:**Hypothesize what would occur if Earth's gravity was that of the moon's.**History:**How would the face of government change if the judicial branch did not exist?**Math:**How would increasing the sales tax rate by 0.02% effect families? How much extra revenue would be generated?## Invention

ELA Example: Invent a product. Create a commercial using at least 3 persuasive techniques to sell your product.

Math Example: Invent a new shape. Can your shape be broken down into other shapes? How to you calculate the surface area of your new shape?

Math Example: Invent a new shape. Can your shape be broken down into other shapes? How to you calculate the surface area of your new shape?

Sources

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. E. (2005).

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. E. (2005).

*Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement*. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.