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## Lap 5: Homework & Practice

## Why Homework?

Research on homework indicates that it should be approached not as an afterthought to the school day, but as a focused strategy for increasing understanding. Knowing which type of homework is needed, helps teachers design appropriate homework assignments. Effective teachers align homework to the learning goal during the lesson planning process.

As you watch the following video from the Teaching Channel think about the following questions..

1. What are the advantages of using this homework routine?

2. How does this process encourage student accountability?

3. Notice how the use of small groups increases both the efficiency and effectiveness of reviewing homework.

As you watch the following video from the Teaching Channel think about the following questions..

1. What are the advantages of using this homework routine?

2. How does this process encourage student accountability?

3. Notice how the use of small groups increases both the efficiency and effectiveness of reviewing homework.

## Teachers can make homework more meaningful by giving students interesting and motivating assignments.

## Suggested Minutes Spent on Homework

Well planned and TEKS aligned homework can extend the school day and serve as an extra pathway to ensure mastery. Research has consistently proven that well-aligned, meaningful homework does have an impact on student learning past the primary grades. Below is a chart describing Marzano's findings based on minutes spent on meaningful, effective homework assignments. Remember to plan 10 minutes per school grade per night as a general rule of thumb.

__Key Research Findings__- Grade level is important when teachers assign homework. Impact of homework on achievement increases as students move through the grades (Cooper, 1989, a, b). At the high school level, for every 30 additional minutes of homework completed daily, a student's GPA can increase up to half a point (Keith, 1992). Elementary students should be assigned homework to establish good learning and study habits (Cooper, 1989; Cooper, Lindsay, Nye, & Greathouse, 1998; Gorges & Elliot, 1999).

- Grading homework is helpful, but homework in which a teacher has embedded instructive comments has the greatest effect on learning.

- Homework assignments provide the time and experience students need to develop study habits that support learning. They experience the results of their effort as well as the ability to cope with mistakes and difficulty (Bempechat, 2004).

- Mastery requires focused practice over days or weeks. After only four practice sessions students reach a halfway point to mastery. It takes more than 24 more practice sessions before students reach 80 percent mastery. And this practice must occur over a span of days or weeks, and cannot be rushed (Anderson, 1995; Newell & Rosenbloom, 1981).

- Teachers in the United States tend to compress many skills into practice sessions and instructional units. Students learn more when allowed to practice fewer skills or concepts, but at a deeper level (Healy, 1990).

- Complex processes should be broken down into smaller bits, or skills, which should be taught with time allotted for student practice and adaptation (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001).

## Practice makes Permanent!!

Practice means students are engaged in applying new learning, often repeatedly. The goal of practice is for students to get as close to mastery as possible. The following charts outline some of Marzano's pointers for making practice meaningful and effective.

## How many skills should students practice at once?

Design practice that focuses on specific elements of a complex skill or process.

Homework and practice should be planned as teachers plan their face to face lessons. Independent or collaborative practice should be assigned after new learning has been acquired. Practice assigned to students should not consist of new learning.

## Teach the Conceptual Knowledge the is Inherent in Acquiring the Skill, Strategy, or Process....

## When should students time their practice?

## Add a little novelty to the practice:

Some cool tech to check out: http://www.slideshare.net/MurrayGirl/marzano-homework-and-practice-presentation